The Nano-Biosensing Program supports fundamental research in engineering areas related to: Novel biorecognition elements Multifunctional nanomaterials and interfaces for biosensing applications Fundamental study of bio-macromolecules confinement and orientation at the micro- and nano-interfaces for biosensing applications Nano-biosensors for basic biology applications (protein-protein interactions, cellular signaling and cross talk, as well as other similar topics) Integration of nano-biosensors into portable devices for medical applications. Proposals outside of these specific topics may also be accepted. Photonic nanosensors with medical applications should be submitted to the Biophotonics Program PE7236, while non-photonic nanosensors should be submitted to PE7909 (Nano-Biosensing). Areas of interest for PE7909 include non-photonic biological and biomedical topics, food safety, energy, environment, distributed sensing, and security. The Nano-Biosensing Program supports innovative, transformative, and insightful fundamental investigations of original technologies with broad long-term impact. The program also supports fundamental development of applications that require novel use of nano-scale bio-inspired engineering principles and approaches that will meet the engineering and technology needs of the nation. The program is targeting research in the area of the monitoring, identification and/or quantification of biological signals and is particularly interested in projects at the intersection of engineering, life sciences, and information technology. Projects submitted to the Program must advance both engineering and life sciences. Proposals outside of these specific interest areas are welcome. In particular, the Interfacial Processing and Thermodynamics Program and the Nano-Biosensing Program may jointly support novel projects related to surface functionalization at the molecular level. The Nano-Biosensing Program supports innovative, transformative and insightful fundamental investigations of original technologies with broad long term impact and applications that require novel use of bio-inspired engineering principles and sophisticated approaches to meet the engineering and technology needs of the nation. The program is targeting research in the area of the monitoring, identification and/or quantification of biological phenomena and will support potential technological breakthroughs that exist at the intersection of engineering, life science and information technology. Proposals submitted to the Program must advance both engineering and life sciences. The development of novel principles and approaches will require highly collaborative interactions between engineers, life scientists and experts in nanotechnology, biomaterials, bioinformatics, and the chemical and physical sciences. The Program recognizes the important role of education and workforce development specifically relevant to the multidisciplinary nature of the area of biosensing. The Program does not support applications with incremental improvements of existing approaches/technologies.The duration of unsolicited awards is generally one to three years. The average annual award size for the program is $100,000 (including indirect cost). Proposals requesting a substantially higher amount than this, without prior consultation with the Program Director, may be returned without review. Small equipment proposals up to $70,000 will also be considered and may be submitted during the annual proposal submission window. Innovative proposals outside of these specific interest areas can be considered.